|Livelihood adaptation patterns of sub villages community in the slope of Merapi Volcano
|Dr. Drs. Satyawan Sunito , R Umaya , Hardjanto , R Soekmadi
The dynamic eruption of Mount Merapi of Merapi National Park has partially changed the slope condition due to differences in the direction and scale of the eruption. National park boundary affecting the vary distance of the sub villages to the top of the mountain that influence to physical condition. This study examines the livelihood adaptation patterns of sub villages community in the slopes of Merapi. A mixed method between Geographic Information System and ethnography was used to explore the changes in physical and social conditions of the sub-villages. The study was conducted in 27 sub villages, interviewed 277 respondents and 62 key informants, field observations and study literatures. The results showed varied livelihood adaptation patterns, namely 1) the west-southwest, area most affected by pyroclastic flow (>20 times), the community have accumulated knowledge of eruption. Mining and Sallaca edulis plantation were the dominant livelihoods2) the south- southeast, area was severely affected by eruptions and largest eruption in the past 140 years. Variety of livelihoods including livestock, farming, tourism activities and mining. The 2010 eruption has changed the ecosystem and economic sources, resulting in the shift of a part livelihood from livestock farming to tourism services. and 3) the north-east, north area was exposed by pyroclastic flows twice, and east was never directly exposed. The vulnerability of ecosystem and economic sources were low, while accumulation of community’s knowledge has not changed over a long period of time. Livestock and farming were dominant, The communities have opportunity to develop complex and advanced agricultural systems. Nevertheless the physical conditions have led to underdeveloped livestock farming systems.